Antiviral Activity of Acanthaster Planci Phospholipase A2 Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Investigation of antiviral activity of Acanthaster planci phospholipase A2 (AP-PLA2) from moluccas to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Materials and Methods: Crude venom (CV) and F20 (PLA2 with 20% fractioned by ammonium sulfate) as a sample of PLA 2 obtained from A. planci’s extract were used. Enzymatic activity of PLA2 was determined using the degradation of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Activity test was performed using in vitro method using coculture of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from a blood donor and PBMC from HIV patient. Toxicity test of AP-PLA2 was done using lethal concentration required to kill 50% of the population (LC50).
AP-PLA2 F20 had activity and purity by 15.66 times bigger than CV. The test showed that the LC50 of AP-PLA2 is 1.638 mg/ml. Antiviral analysis of AP-PLA2 in vitro showed the inhibition of HIV infection to PBMC. HIV culture with AP-PLA2 and without AP-PLA2 has shown the number of infected PBMC (0.299±0.212% and 9.718±0.802%). Subsequently, RNA amplification of HIV using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction resulted in the decrease of band intensity in gag gene of HIV.
This research suggests that AP-PLA2 has the potential to develop as an antiviral agent because in vitro experiment showed its ability to decrease HIV infection in PBMC and the number of HIV ribonucleic acid in culture.

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